Understanding Phrases, and Clauses
How to differentiate between an adjective, adjective phrase and an adjective clause? ..
See these sentences carefully.
a. Modi is a popular [Adjective] leader.
b. Modi is a man of great popularity [Adjective phrase].
a. My grandfather was a sagacious [Adjective] person.
b. My grandfather was a man of great sagacity [Adjective phrase].
a. India faces a hostile [Adjective] neighborhood.
b. India faces a neighborhood riddled with hostility. [Adjective phrase]
a. The match ended with a exciting [Adjective] finish.
b. The match ended with a finish of great excitement. [Adjective phrase].
As you see from the above examples, the adjectives such as ‘popular’, ‘sagacious’, ‘hostile’, and exciting’ have been replaced by a group of words such as ‘of great popularity’, ‘of great sagacity’, ‘riddled with hostility’, and ‘of great excitement’. The words that substitute the adjectives are the respective adjective phrases.
Adjective clause ….
a. The long-bearded terrorist was easily spotted by the police. [Adjective]
b. The terrorist who had long beards was easily spotted by the police. [Adjective clause].
a. The semi-rotten fish was eaten up by the cats. [Adjective]
b. The fish, which was partly rotten, was eaten up by the cat. [Adjective clause]
a. The unclear message created the confusion among the soldiers. [Adjective]
b. The message, which lacked clarity, created the confusion among the soldiers. [Adjective clause]
As you can see, the Adjective clause has a subject and a predicate, unlike the Adjective phrase that does not have these. The adjective phrases are just a bunch of words acting as an adjective.
How to differentiate between a noun, noun phrase, and a noun clause? ..
We live in houses. [Noun]
The food was tasty. [Noun]
Rains bring good luck. [Noun]
Noun phrase ..
Remember ..A noun phrase can just be a simple noun or a pronoun.
Example .. Nurses help during delivery. [Noun]
Passengers like to have hot lunch. [Noun phrase]
I am tired. [Noun phrase]
It is getting late. [Noun phrase]
It can also be a determiner and a noun …:
Our nurses help during delivery. [Noun phrase]
All passengers like to have hot lunches. [Noun phrase]
Those villas are very huge. [Noun phrase]
An adjective can also be joined with it at times.
Our well-trained nurses help during delivery. [Noun phrase]
All business class passengers like to have hot lunches. [Noun phrase]
Those sprawling villas are very huge. [Noun phrase]
Sometimes the noun phrase can begin with a quantifier.
All our well-trained nurses help during delivery. [Noun phrase]
Both of the refugee children were accommodated here. [Noun phrase]
Some villas are indeed very huge. [Noun phrase]
Noun clause ..
Noun clauses make it easy to form good, meaningful sentences. The use of these clauses adds beauty to one’s writing. Noun clauses can be used in a variety of ways to serve different purposes. It is important to know that these clauses are dependant clauses. They can not stand alone.
Noun clauses used as Subject of a Verb …
a. What Modi said made the Congress leaders angry. [Noun clause]
b. What Mrs. Clinton wrote in her mails intrigued many in her country. [Noun clause]
c. What the speaker said was lost in the din. [Noun clause]
d. What the agitated member said was expunged by the Speaker from the records. [Noun clause]
Noun clause used as Object of a Verb …
a. The pilot did not know that the on-board computers were mal-functioning. [Noun clause]
b. The drug addict didn’t know that he had already developed cancer. [Noun clause]
c. The customer was unaware that his debit card had no balance. [Noun clause]
d. Robert Frost did not anticipate that his poem ‘Stopping by the Woods…” would be so much acclaimed. [Noun clause]
Noun clause used as Subject Complement …
a. BJP’s problem is that it can’t silence its motor mouths. [Noun clause]
b. Raghuram Rajan’s crowning achievement was his appointment as RBI Governor.
c. Mr. Donald Trump’s weakness is his vitriolic anti-Islamic outbursts. [Noun clause]
Noun clause as Object of a Preposition …
a. Pakistanis are painfully unaware of the damage Taliban is doing to the country’s reputation. [Noun clause]
b. The captain of the sunken ship was not responsible for what happened in the engine room. [Noun clause]
c. The Andhra politician is the owner of a fleet of luxury cars.
Noun clause as Adjective Complement …
a. The Clinton camp is happy that she managed to scrape through in Iowa. [Noun clause]
b. The fisherman is elated that the catch has been good. [Noun clause]
c. The mountaineer is excited that the weather has finally cleared. [Noun clause]
[To be continued]